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chemical carcinogens ppt

Chloroform, DDT, formaldehyde, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are examples of possible human carcinogens. • Dry wastes must be incinerated or shipped out as regulated medical waste (“chemotheraputic agents”). • Regulated areas are usually under negative pressure (fume hood) to contain carcinogens in the hood or room. Any substance that is capable of causing cancer. Neoplasia V Carcinogenesis - . &Carcinogenic Agents. An SOP may be developed for an individual carcinogen, a process or a class of chemicals. • Animal studies directly induce cancer in test animals using a large sample of animals, usually of two or more species with varying dose and time parameters. Any substance that is capable of causing cancer.Any substance that is capable of causing cancer. Like fibers, particulate matter is most often inhaled, but can also be ingeste… GGS Medical College/Baba Farid Univ.of Health Sciences. Presentation Summary : CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS What is a carcinogen? The known chemical carcinogens include a wide range of structures. • Engineering controls--exhaust ventilation and equipment • Personal protective equipment • Personal hygiene • Labeling and storage of containers • Housekeeping and maintenance • Regulated areas • Decontamination and emergency procedures • Monitoring • Administrative controls. 1. • Ingestion. Defects in DNA repair capacity are associated with a high risk of cancer. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 1. • Carcinogens may never be disposed of in the ordinary trash. Personal hygiene • No smoking, eating, drinking or application of cosmetics is permitted in areas where carcinogens are in use (or in any lab area!). • Eye protection--safety glasses, splash goggles, face shields. Acknowledgment - . • Cigarette smoking (co-carcinogen) • Alcohol consumption (co-carcinogen) • Diet--high fat consumption, natural antioxidants • Geographic location--industrial areas, UV light • Therapeutic drugs--some are known carcinogens • Inherited conditions, How do I reduce my exposure to carcinogens? • All areas where carcinogens may be used, present or stored should have prominently displayed warning signs or labels both in the areas and access to them.. Administrative controls • Material Safety Data Sheets and other information. Some warning signs and labels are described by specific standards. human carcinogens. They cause damage after repeated or long-duration exposure. 9. safety file • Desiccators, plastic boxes, bottle-in-can are acceptable secondary containment. • Fire extinguisher at hand as required. Contaminated disposable clothing should be treated as hazardous waste, Labeling of containers • All containers of chemical carcinogens need to have a warning label affixed to them. eu, CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS - . • Carcinogen glove box or environmental chamber. chemical reactions involve a chemical change. Personal protective equipment • Respiratory protection--dust masks, respirators. a chemical change is a, 3 ways of representing the reaction of H 2 with O 2 to form H 2 O - Reactants. chemical reactions and chemical. classification based on particular effects on health. The End “There are old researchers and there are bold researchers, but there are no old, bold researchers!” Anon. Check “Poison” on the waste label. • Environmental or “lifestyle” factors. What organs to carcinogens attack? a carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, Carcinogenesis - . In 1941, Rous and Kidd painted the skin of rabbits and found that if this painting were interrupted, tumors would disappear only to reappear if the application of tar was re-estab… Required whenever there is a spill or other emergency. what is a chemical change?. How do I dispose of waste carcinogens? See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. • Epoxides:Ethylene oxide Propylene oxide • Organohalogen comp. • Area monitoring may be required in some cases. • Dry sweeping or compressed air cleaning of floors or work surfaces is prohibited. Engineering controls--exhaust ventilation and equipment • General room ventilation--10 or more changes of air per hour. Examination by a physician, blood tests, etc. CHEMICAL CARCINOGENSCHEMICAL CARCINOGENS 2. In early studies, it was observed that a long latent period could elapse from exposure to carcinogens to the development of cancer. How do I reduce my inventory and level of waste generation. identify the drug that makes tobacco addictive. III.C Prevention of Carcinogenesis. They can be divided into three major categories: chemical carcinogens (including those from biological sources), physical carcinogens, and oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses. Chemical Carcinogens Providence Va Medical Center PPT. Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation includes: X-rays, gamma rays, as well as particulate radiation; alpha, beta, protons, neutrons and primary cosmic radiation. 1988). rachelle heller. Respirators are primarily for use in non-lab areas, except for emergency response (spill cleanup)--shops, floor stripping, construction operations (painting). You can change your ad preferences anytime. Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division.Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under a variety of circumstances. This may be done by EH&S staff. They cause damage after repeated or long-duration exposure. 8. • Specialized training may be required for specific carcinogens. Monitoring • If there is reason to believe that a PEL may be exceeded then personal exposure monitoring is required. • Storage areas must be labeled “Danger--Carcinogens Stored Here.”. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. • Dry cleaning of surfaces and equipment must be done by vacuum systems with high-efficiency filters. What is an OSHA “select” carcinogen? • All contaminated floor sweepings, debris (paper towels, Kimwipes, plasticware), discarded filters from respirators or vacuums must be bagged, properly labeled and sent out for incineration. Create stunning presentation online in just 3 steps. • Employees must be trained in the content of the SOP. • Epidemiological studies determine the relationship between a cancer suspect chemical and a human population over a long period of time. Many thousands of additional compounds are “suspect” carcinogens. What dictates this outcome is relatively predictable but highly variable. The first of these is DNA repair (Hoeijmakers, 2009). Chemical carcinogens are not normally reactive by themselves, but need metabolic activation to form highly reactive, electrophilic species (ultimate carcinogens), interacting with nucleophilic sites in the cell, especially in DNA. Any substance that is capable of causing cancer. Regulation of gene regulation in Eukaryotes, No public clipboards found for this slide, Student at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. It may be a substance in the air, a product you use, or a chemical in foods and drinks. Regulated areas • Establish regulated or designated areas for the use of carcinogens. Chemical Carcinogens 1 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Follo wing exposure, chemical carcinogens may be ab- sorbed in a number of ways (oral, inhalator, cutaneous, and injection) and distributed across several tissues (Con- • Results of monitoring must be supplied to the employee. What is a carcinogen?. Breathing gases, fumes and vapors is the most common form of exposure. • With very few exceptions (dilute formaldehyde solutions) carcinogens may never be discharged to the sanitary sewer. • It is listed under Group 1 (“carcinogenic to humans”) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). “Elephant trunk” or slot hood. Etiology Of Cancer Many solvents and other chemicals go directly through the skin. A Right-to-Know (RTK) style label must be on any container of material that is repackaged or made into a solution more than 0.1%. • Mutagens are chronic toxins • Teratogens act during pregnancy to cause adverse effects on the embryo or fetus including malformations, retarded growth and post- natal deficiencies. ABSORPTION AND METABOLISM OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS. • Remove lab coat or other potentially contaminated protective clothing before leaving the work area. : Vinyl chloride Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Hexachlorobenzene Trichloroethylene • Hydrazines: Hydrazine (and salts) 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine • N-Nitroso compounds: N-Nitrosodimethylamine • Aromatic Amines: Benzidine Aniline o-Anisidine o-Toluidine • Aromatic hydrocarbons: Benzene Benz[a]anthracene Benzo[a]pyrene, Classes of carcinogens (cont.) Chemical carcinogens can be mutagens. • Skin absorption. at the end of this lesson, you will be able to: translate, Chemical Reactions - . Formaldehyde is easily detoxified by NH4OH, for example. Chemical carcinogens have highly reactive electrophile groups that directly damage DNA, leading to mutations and eventually cancer. • Miller and Miller–Ultimate carcinogenic metabolites are electrophiles adducting DNA, 1967. CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS. No mouth pipetting! Most known human carcinogens produce cancer in experimental animals. • Special solutions or solvents on hand if required for decontamination of skin, eyes. • Protective clothing--lab coats, aprons, Tyvek garments. introduction. • Carcinogens are chronic toxins. Their common feature is that their ultimate forms are electrophilic reactants; in most cases, these reactants arise through metabolism in vivo. Many carcinogens have a very low exposure limit. • Fume hoods--full open face velocity of 8o to 100 l.f.p.m.. combined with a dry ice capture test. Carcinogens are categorised as being chemical or physical agents , causing DNA damage attributable to their physico-chemical properties, such as DNA molecule distortion or DNA cross-linking [3–6]. • Any “incidental” spill may be cleaned up by the lab staff; larger spills may require a emergency response (5-1111). topic 8. recognizing chemical, Tobacco Use - . are there differences in the mechanisms of carcinogenesis associated with, Types of Toxicants - . A specific chromosomal abnormality can be associated with human leukemia. These induce GSTs and other drug-metabolizing enzymes, and their induction of GSTs closely correlates with their tumor inhibitory activity. • Plan the use of carcinogens carefully. Chemical Carcinogens 7. • No benchtop work in a laboratory setting. How is chemical carcinogenicity determined? ...… what we know and don’t know about the relationships between exposure to certain. chemical reactions. Key words: cancer stages,carcinogenesis evaluation, chemical carcinogens, chemical carcinogenesis. • Spill mixtures and cleanup materials for spills on hand. • Records of exposures,. inorganic comp. Chemical carcinogens similarly vary very greatly in potency. • It is listed in either Group 2A (“limited evidence of carcinogenicity” from human studies) or 2B (“sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity” from animal studies) by IARC or under the category “reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens by NTP. • Secondary containment means placing chemical containers in an outer container to prevent the release of a chemical in the event that its container breaks or ruptures. Exceeded then personal exposure monitoring is required of structures or types of Toxicants - cancer to be increasingly. Supersede other OSHA standards for personal protective equipment • general room ventilation exhaust... 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2020-12-12T06:15:06+00:00